Describe principles of posterior segment pharmacology (eg, antimicrobial, anti – inflammatory and growth factors), with emphasis on bioavailability, mechanism of actions, relative efficacy, safety, and potential complications. The fellow should be able to formulate fortified antibiotics and antifungal medications.
Perform examination techniques, of indirect ophthalmoscopy (20D, 78D, 90D).
Effective knowledge & competency in interpretation of FFA & OCT of Macula
Skill in B-Scan ultrasonogram & correlation with clinical findings.
Identify developmental anomalies of anterior and posterior segment, their impact on visual development, and their management (eg, Iris, lens, retina, optic nerve and choroid).
Diagnose and formulate management plans to effectively manage common diseases / disorders involving the vitreo-retina and macular diseases.
Diagnose and formulate management plan for infectious and inflammatory conditions of posterior segment disorders.
Skill in laser including pan retinal photocoagulation, Barrage laser, Grid laser, Modified grid laser, focal laser and laser hyaloidotomy.
Develop skills needed for the medical and surgical evaluation and management for posterior segment diseases problems, including vitreous Biopsy, intravitreal antibiotics / anti – VEGF. Fellows should be familiar with vitreous biopsy interpretation of microbiology results.
Diagnose surgical retinal conditions and appropriate in time referral.
Contents of the Fellowship
Recite fundamentals of posterior segment anatomy, physiology, microbiology and wound healing.
Describe principles of immunology, including autoimmunity and pathologic responses of the posterior segment.
Acute and chronic intermediate uveitis and posterior uveitis to include both infections and noninfectious etiologies.
Acute and chronic infective endophthalmitis (including bacterial, viral and fungal).
Diabetic retinopathy including no proliferative diabetic retinopathy, proliferative diabetic retinopathy, vitreous hemorrhage and tractional retinal detachment. 6. Retinal vascular occlusion including central retinal vein occlusion, branch retinal vein occlusion, hemiretinal vein occlusion, central retinal artery occlusion, branch retinal artery occlusion and cilioretinal artery occlusion.
Non infectious inflammatory diseases of the retinal and vitreous including. Intermediate uveitis Vogt-Koyanagi Harada syndrome, vasculities and sympathetic ophthamia.
Posterior uveitis and vasculitis.
Macular disease including age related macular degeneration, neovascular (exudaive) age related macular degeneration, central serous.
Chorioretinopathy, macular dysrophy and macular degeneration.
Infectious disease of retina and vitreous including tuberculosis, toxopasmosis.
Management of exudative RD 14. Retinopathy of prematurity
Be able to appropriately perform laser procedures of vitreo-retinal diseases.
Tumors of the posterior segment, such as choroidal osteoma, choroidal hemangioma, choroidal melanoma, choroidal metastasis and retinoblastoma.
Diagnosis of surgical conditions of retinal diseases.
DR screening online/at community hospital.
Distant video consultancy.
Clinical activity at branch / community level eye hospitals.
Posterior Pole (central picture)
Field 30o (Disc central and macular central pictures) Field 30o (Disc central, macular central and temporal to macula picture)
Field 50o (Disc central, disc superior, Disc inferior and disc temporal picture) Montage 50o
Fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA)
Optical coherence tomography (OCT)
Field analysis in retinal dystrophy / other retinal disease ICGA ERG/EOG (Electrophysiological tests)